The Chronological order exegesis “Bāyān al-Ma‘ānī”

An Introduction to its Methodology, Approach & Pivotal Role in Tafsīr Literature

  • Muhammad Saeed shaikh, Rizwan Rasheed The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Keywords: Chronological Order Exegesis, Bāyān al-Ma‘ānī, ‘Abdul Qādir Mullah Ḥawaish

Abstract

This article briefly review the first complete chronological order exegesis Bāyān al-Ma‘ānī written by exegete Mullah ‘Abdul Qādir Ḥawaish. Qur’ān, an everlasting miracle and last message of Allah Almighty, revealed on Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ) in 7th century CE. It contains injunctions and rulings to all facets of life. To provide elucidation for better understanding and conviction of Allah’s will is certainly the reason, different kinds of Qur’ānic commentaries are being penned from early Islāmic era to present time, constantly. Undoubtedly, Tafsīr is the genre that encompasses most volume of Islāmic intellectual heritage.  Two arrangement orders of Qur’ānic chapters and verses are classified by Muslim ‘Ulamaā.  Present order of Qur’ān arrangement is different from chronological order and arranged by Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ) by the will of Allah Almighty under the wise counsel of Jibrā’ēl (علیہ السلام). Approximately, all exegeses of Qur’ān from classical era to modern time, has been written according to present arrangement. Bāyān al-Ma‘ānī is an Arabic chronological order modern exegesis written by ‘Irāqī Muslim academic, Mullah Ḥawaish (d. 1978 CE). However, as a consequence of, following descending orders of Qur’ān, this scholarly work is bit dissimilar to common exegeses. In this article, methodology, approach and divergent of this extraordinary exegesis as compare to standard traditional commentaries, has been discussed. Hitherto, research study indicate, it is a magnificent Tafsīr bil Māthūr, written in modern time, handy for general reader of intermediate level.

References

Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Qayāmah, 75:17
Note: English Translation by Umm Muḥammad, Saḥīḥ International, (Saudi Arabia: Al-Muntada Al-Islami, 2004)
Al-Sayūti, Jalalluddīn , Al-Itqan fi ‘Ulūm’l Qur’ān ( Lahore: Edāra Islāmīāt, 1982) pp. 166-173

ابن حنبل، أحمد، المسند،(بیروت: مؤسسة الرسالة،2001) ج۔ 29، ص۔ 441، حَدِيثُ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ أَبِي الْعَاصِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ،حدیث رقم 17918
حَدَّثَنَا أَسْوَدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُرَيْمٌ، عَنْ لَيْثٍ، عَنْ شَهْرِ بْنِ حَوْشَبٍ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ أَبِي الْعَاصِ، قَالَ: كُنْتُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَالِسًا إِذْ شَخَصَ بِبَصَرِهِ ثُمَّ صَوَّبَهُ حَتَّى كَادَ أَنْ يُلْزِقَهُ بِالْأَرْضِ، قَالَ: ثُمَّ شَخَصَ بِبَصَرِهِ فَقَالَ: " أَتَانِي جِبْرِيلُ فَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ أَضَعَ هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ بِهَذَا الْمَوْضِعِ مِنْ هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ " {إِنَّ اللهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى وَيَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ} النحل: 90
صحیح البخاری، کتاب تفسیر القرآن، باب' وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا'،حدیث رقم،4530
حَدَّثَنِي أُمَيَّةُ بْنُ بِسْطَامٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، عَنْ حَبِيبٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ، قَالَ: ابْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ قُلْتُ: لِعُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ {وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا} [البقرة: 234] قَالَ: قَدْ نَسَخَتْهَا الآيَةُ الأُخْرَى، فَلِمَ تَكْتُبُهَا؟ أَوْ تَدَعُهَا؟ قَالَ: «يَا ابْنَ أَخِي لاَ أُغَيِّرُ شَيْئًا مِنْهُ مِنْ مَكَانِهِ
Al-Sayūti, Jalalluddīn , Al-Itqan fi-‘Ulum’l Qur’ān ( Lebanon: Dar Ibn Ḥazam, N.D) pp. 20-40
Andrew Rippin, The Encyclopedia of Religion, s.v “Tafsīr”( New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987) pp.236-37
Ibid.
Nöldeke, Theodor, Friedrich Schwally, The History of the Qur’ān (Leiden: Brill,2013) p. 263
Ibid., p. 250
ibid., p. 30
Ibid., p.141 & p.60
Ibid., p.73
Ibid., p.220
Jeffery, Arthur, Materials for the History of The Text of The Qur’ān (Leiden: Brill, 1937) kitāb al-Maṣaḥif, pp. 8-14
Mohar ali, Muḥammad, The Qur’ān and The orientalists, (Ipswich: Jam‘iyat ’Iḥyaa’ Minhaaj al-Aunnah, 2004), p. 205
Ibid., p. 206
Ibid., p. 211
Ibid., p. 237
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Ma’īdah, 5: 67
Qur’ān, Sūrah Ibrahīm, 15:4
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Naḥal, 16:44
http://shamela.ws/index.php/author/1324 (retrieved on April 3, 2019).
http://esyria.sy/sites/code/index.php?site=deiralzor&p=stories&category=characters&filename=201306220805022 (retrieved on March 5, 2019).
Mullah Ḥawaish, ‘Abdul Qādir, Bāyān al-Ma‘ānī (Damascus: Maktaba al-Taraqqī, 1965), v.1, p.11
Ibid., pp. 4-5
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Baqrah, 2:282
Tarmizī, Abū Esa, Sunnan Tarmizī, (Egypt, 1975, Sharīka Matba‘ Mustafa al-babī ḥalbi) Hadith No. 2950, v.5, p.199
Qur’ān, Sūrah Muḥammad, 47:24
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Nīsa, 4:83
Ḥawaish, v. 1, p.10
Qur’ān Sūrah āl-Imran, 3:7
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.15
Qur’ān, Sūrah Tāhā, 20:45
Qur’ān, Sūrah Tāhā, 20:18
Ḥawaish, v.1, pp. 12-13
Qur’ān, Sūrah al- A‘rāf, 7:157
Ḥawaish v. 1, p.21
Ibid., p.33
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Fuṣṣilat 41:42
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.27
Ḥawaish, v.1, p. 43
Genesis 19:30-38 ( KJV)
Ḥawaish, v.5, p.4
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.336
Qur’ān, Sūrah Yousaf : 4-5
Ḥawaish, v. 3, p. 174
Ibid.
Ḥawaish, v.3, p. 178
Ṭabrī, Muḥammad bin Jarīr, Jame‘ al- Bāyān fi-Tawēl’l Qur’ān, (Bairut : Mū’asasah al-Rīsalah, 2000), v.15, p.555
Literal Meaning: Left out, forwarded.
Technical Meaning: It is that Hadith which a Taaba‘ee quotes directly from Prophet (علیہ السلام) without mentioning the name of Saḥaabī.
Literal meaning: Abandoned.
Technical meaning: That Hadith in which there is such a narrator who has been blamed for lying or falsehood in matters other than narrating Hadith.
Beḍawī, Naṣir al-Din, Anwar al-Tanzīl wa Asrar al-Ta’wīl, (Bairut: Darul Aḥya al-Tūrath al-‘Arabi, 1997) v. 3, p. 155
Ibid., p. 178
Al-Juzi , Abu al-Farj ‘Abd al-Raḥman, Zad al-Masīr, (Bairut: Darul kītab al-‘Arabi, 2002), v.2. p. 413
It is a Hadith which does not impart positive knowledge on its own unless it is supported by extraneous or circumstantial evidence.
Ḥawaish, v.6, p.166
Ḥawaish, v.5, p.415 see also v.6, p.500
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:2
Ḥawaish, v.6, p.107, sees also Deuteronomy, xxii. 24 (KJB), Stoning is a type of punishment in which people throw stones at guilty until subject dies, But Rabbinic Judaism interpreted these laws in a way so these punishments and laws are practically unenforceable.
Ibid.
Al Tarmizī, Abū Esa, Jame‘ Al-kabīr, (Bairut: Dar al-Garb al-Islāmi , 1998), Hadith no. 1431, v.3 . p.90,
Ḥawaish, v. 6, p.108
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Aḥzāb, 33:9
Ḥawaish, v.4, p.383
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-An‘ām, 6:38
Qur’ān, Sūrah Luqmān, 31:34
Ḥawaish, v.3, p.492
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.54
Translation: I looked at her and got stunned by her excellent beauty, so I conveyed secretly with my eyes, I love you. My secret gesture impressed her by reaching deep into her heart.
Author of these poetic verses are unknown but these verses are quoted in one book of poetry ,
داود بن عمر الأنطاكي، المعروف بالأكمه، تزيين الأسواق في أخبار العشاق(مکان ، مطبع و سنۃ لا توجد)،ص۔184
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-‘Alaq, 95:2
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.66
Translation: O man, you have no idea that cures of your illness and solution for your problem is hidden inside you. Do you think you are a little participle? Nay, universe is laying inside you.
‘Allama Ālosi in Rūḥ al-Ma‘ani (Bairut:Dar al kutb al ‘ilmia, 1420 H.) v.15, p. 395 also quoted this poetry attributing to Ali bin Abī Ṭalib.
Ḥawaish, v.4, p.34
Translation: You cannot receive knowledge unless you have six qualities: intelligence, passion, hard work, language, teacher guidance, and plenty of time.
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Kahaf ,18:19
Ḥawaish, v.4, p.168
Translation: You have given me notepaper without money. Tell me without money does notepaper has any use? (Context: a man went to calligrapher and gave him notepaper to write certain passage. After few days he visited calligrapher and asked about his assignment. Calligrapher replied you have given me notepaper without money. Only notepaper without money is not sufficient to perform this task).
Qur’ān, Sūrah al-Baqrah, 2:30
Ḥawaish, v.5, p.24
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.116
Ḥawaish, v.6, p.327
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.74
Ḥawaish, v.6, p.320
Ḥawaish, v.1, p.27
Published
2021-04-29