“An Overview of Social Pluralism in Umayyad Reign: In the light of the Teachings of Prophet (SAW)”

  • Aisha Sadaf Islamia University Bahawalpur
  • Muhammad Asif The Islamia University, Bahawalpur
Keywords: Umayyad Rulers, Zimmis, Prophet Muhammad, Social Pluralism, Religion, Nationality, Jews, Christians, hypocrites, infidels, slaves.



In this article we discuss the relationship of Umayyad rulers with the general society. Due to their behavior, the Zimmis lived a life of comfort and tranquility with great protocol. Actually The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) designed the state system on the basis of social pluralism and made the society of that time a social pluralistic society. Social pluralism is still a big problem in Europe which it has not solved till today but Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) have solved the problem of social pluralism, in His time, people of all religions (Jews, Christians, hypocrites, infidels, slaves and masters, rich and poor and Muslims) of the society were free to adhere to their respective religions irrespective of religion and nationality. Similarly, in the Rightly Guided Caliphate, there are no religious differences anywhere in the society. The same social pluralistic society, which was founded by the Holy Prophet, continued as usual. The same process continued in the Umayyad period. The political benevolence and respect accord of the Muslim rulers resulted in the non-Muslim subjects blindly trusting their non-religious rulers and turning to them for their religious disputes, considering them as defenders of their rights.


Ph.D Islamic Studies, IUB