Establishing Brand Personality of an Islamic Institution: An Empirical Study on International Islamic University Malaysia
The notion of branding applies to all organizations, be it manufacturing or service oriented. Within service sector, universities are rarely studied with the lens of branding. After all, universities do compete with each other and desire to look different. Among various techniques that develop differentiation, Aaker’s brand personality model is one that is still valid yet its generalizability has been questioned when applied in various countries, cultures and even organizations. Moreover, limited research on Islamic brand personality in the context of Islamic organizations/institutions has been done. This research fills the gap by developing Islamic brand personality model of International Islamic University Malaysia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied on data from 200 students. Results exhibit six factors with a cumulative variance of 68.237 per cent. Three new factors i.e. humbleness, trustworthiness, and cooperation emerged. Competence was the strongest factor with eigenvalue of 10.847 and variance of 41.720 per cent. Reliability of all factors ranged from minimum 0.722 to maximum 0.885, reflecting internal consistency of scale. The model can help Islamic institutions develop their branding strategies effectively based on the above factors. The model can be applied to other Islamic institutions such as Islamic University and University of the Punjab, Pakistan.
2 Jennifer L Aaker, 'Dimensions of Brand Personality', Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 34 (1997), 347-56.
3 Jennifer Lynn Aaker, Veronica Benet-Martinez, and Jordi Garolera, 'Consumption Symbols as Carriers of Culture: A Study of Japanese and Spanish Brand Personality Constucts', Journal of personality and social psychology, 81 (2001), 492.
4 Moha Asri Abdullah, Zulkarnain Kedah, and Md Aftab Anwar, 'Effects of Islamic Entrepreneurship Mind Programming on Entrepreneurial Performance through Entrepreneurial Motivation', International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 15 (2015), 294-312.
5 Abdullah Abu Bakar. Vol. 5: 26604 (Al-Riyath: Maktabah Al-Rushd, 1988).
6 Khaliq Ahmad, 'Customer Decision Making Vis-a-Vis Halal Branding', Malaysian Management Review, 48 (2013), 79-94.
7 Muhamad Fazil Ahmad, 'Antecedents of Halal Brand Personality', Journal of Islamic Marketing, 6 (2015), 209-23.
8 Muhammad Ahmed, and Muhammad Tahir Jan, 'An Extension of Aaker’s Brand Personality Model from an Islamic Perspective: A Conceptual Study', Journal of Islamic Marketing, 6 (2015).
9 Fawziah K Al-Ammar, 'Intellectual Characteristics of a Muslim Personality and Job Characteristics as Determinants for Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Yemeni Secondary School Teachers in Sanaa' (International Islamic University, 2008).
10 Fawziah K Al-Ammar, Ismaiel H Ahmed, and Mohamad Sahari Nordin, 'Moral Character of Muslim Personality: Scale Validation', Journal of Education and Practice, 3 (2012), 118-28.
11 Muhammad Al-Ghazali, Muslim Character (Adam Publishers, 2006).
12 Al-Isawi, Dirasar Fi All-Shakhsiyyah Al-Islaiyyah Wa Al-Arabiyyah as Asalib Tanmiyatiha [Studies on Islamic and Arab Personality and Methods of Its Improvement] (Bayrut: Dar al-Nahdah al-Arabiyyah, 1990).
13 Al-Tibrani. Vol. 22:7972 (Maktabah al Ulum wa al Hikmah, 1983).
14 Abbas J. Ali, and David Weir, 'Islamic Perspectives on Management and Organization', Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 2 (2005), 410-15.
15 Syed Ahmad Ali, Arif Hassan, Nurita Juhdi, and Siti Salwani Razali, 'Employees’ Attitude Towards Islamic Banking: Measurement Development and Validation', International Journal of Ethics and Systems, 34 (2018), 78-100.
16 Baker Ahmad Alserhan, 'On Islamic Branding: Brands as Good Deeds', Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1 (2010), 101-06.
17 Alexander Chernev, Ryan Hamilton, and David Gal, 'Competing for Consumer Identity: Limits to Self-Expression and the Perils of Lifestyle Branding', Journal of Marketing, 75 (2011), 66-82.
18 Hwiman Chung, and Euijin Ahn, 'Creating Online Brand Personality: The Role of Personal Difference', Journal of Promotion Management, 19 (2013), 167-87.
19 Keith S. Coulter, and Robin A. Coulter, 'Determinants of Trust in a Service Provider: The Moderating Role of Length of Relationship', Journal of Services Marketing, 16 (2002), 35-50.
20 Marieke De Mooij, Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes (SAGE Publications Limited, 2018).
21 Arabic Dictionary, Al-Muzhar Fi Al-Luguah (Bayrut: Dar al Kutub al Ilmiyah, 1997).
22 Martin Eisend, and Nicola E. Stokburger-Sauer, 'Brand Personality: A Meta-Analytic Review of Antecedents and Consequences', Marketing Letters, 24 (2013), 205-16.
23 Abdoul Aziz Fall, 'Development and Validation of a Muslim Personality Scale' (International Islamic University, 2009).
24 Traci H Freling, Jody L Crosno, and David H Henard, 'Brand Personality Appeal: Conceptualization and Empirical Validation', Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39 (2011), 392-406.
25 Traci H. Freling, and Lukas P. Forbes, 'An Empirical Analysis of the Brand Personality Effect', Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14 (2005), 404-13.
26 Hong-Youl Ha, and Swinder Janda, 'Brand Personality and Its Outcomes in the Chinese Automobile Industry', Asia Pacific Business Review, 20 (2014), 216-30.
27 Muslim bin Hajaj, Al-Jamay Al-Sahih, Vol. 1:95 (Bayrut: Dar Ihya Al-Turath Al-Arabi, N.D.).
28 Ibn Kather, Tafsir Al-Qur'an Al-Kareem (Madina: Darul Taibati Printing Press, 1999).
29 Ibn Maskawayh, Tahdib Al-Akhlaq Wa Tathir Al-a-Raq. ed. by Ibn al-Khatab (Al-Qadhirah: Al-Matba'ah al-Masriyyat wa Maktabatuha, 1977).
30 Ibn Taymiyyah, Al-Siyasah Al-Shariyah Fi Islah Al-Raa Wa Al-Raiyyah (Al-Qahirah: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabiyy, 1980).
31 Syed Arabi Idid, Iium at 25: The Path Travelled and the Way Forward (International Islamic University Malaysia: IIUM Press, 2009).
32 Harold H. Kassarjian, 'Personality and Consumer Behavior: A Review', Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 8 (1971), 409-18.
33 Rahim Kaviani, 'Islam and Intellectual Sciences', Journal of Al-Tamaddun, 3 (2011).
34 Hee Jung Lee, and Myung Soo Kang, 'The Effect of Brand Personality on Brand Relationship, Attitude and Purchase Intention with a Focus on Brand Community', Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 17 (2013).
35 Bernard Lewis, 'Freedom and Justice in the Modern Middle East', Foreign Affairs, 84 (2005), 36-51.
36 Natalia Maehle, Cele Otnes, and Magne Supphellen, 'Consumers' Perceptions of the Dimensions of Brand Personality', Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10 (2011), 290-303.
37 James C. McCroskey, and Thomas J. Young, 'The Use and Abuse of Factor Analysis in Communication Research', Human Communication Research, 5 (1979), 375-82.
38 Dorothy Minkus-McKenna, 'The Pursuit of Halal', Progressive Grocer, 86 (2007), 42.
39 Ian Phau, and Kong Cheen Lau, 'Conceptualising Brand Personality: A Review and Research Propositions', Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 9 (2000), 52-69.
40 Joseph T Plummer, 'How Personality Makes a Difference', Journal of Advertising Research, 24 (1985), 27-31.
41 Yuniarti Hidayah Suyoso Putra, 'Detecting Internal Control Problems Based on Coso and Islamic Perspective: Case on Smes', Tazkia Islamic Finance and Business Review, 8 (2014), 25-44.
42 Philipp A. Rauschnabel, Nina Krey, Barry J. Babin, and Bjoern S. Ivens, 'Brand Management in Higher Education: The University Brand Personality Scale', Journal of Business Research (2015).
43 José I. Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Erenchun-Podlech, and Elizabeth Silva-Olave, 'The Ford Brand Personality in Chile', Corporate Reputation Review, 7 (2004), 232-51.
44 Tibor Scitovsky, 'The Desire for Excitement in Modern Society', Kyklos, 34 (1981), 3-13.
45 Muhammad Shafi, Ma'rariful-Qur'an. Vol. 2 (Karachi: Maktabah Dar al Maarif 1998).
46 Yongjun Sung, Sejung Marina Choi, Hongmin Ahn, and Young‐A Song, 'Dimensions of Luxury Brand Personality: Scale Development and Validation', Psychology & Marketing, 32 (2015), 121-32.
47 Yongjun Sung, and Jooyoung Kim, 'Effects of Brand Personality on Brand Trust and Brand Affect', Psychology and Marketing, 27 (2010), 639-61.
48 Yongjun Sung, and Spencer F. Tinkham, 'Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors', Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15 (2005), 334-50.
49 Al Tahawi, Sharah Mushil Al Athar. Vol. 15: 5847 (Bairut: Muassassah Al Risalah, 1994).
50 P. Temporal, Islamic Branding and Marketing: Creating a Global Islamic Business (Wiley, 2011).
51 Bejoy John Thomas, and PC Sekar, 'Measurement and Validity of Jennifer Aaker's Brand Personality Scale for Colgate Brand', Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 33 (2008).
52 Xuehua Wang, Zhilin Yang, and Ning Rong Liu, 'The Impacts of Brand Personality and Congruity on Purchase Intention: Evidence from the Chinese Mainland's Automobile Market', Journal of Global Marketing, 22 (2009), 199-215.
53 Brandi A. Watkins, and William J. Gonzenbach, 'Assessing University Brand Personality through Logos: An Analysis of the Use of Academics and Athletics in University Branding', Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23 (2013), 15-33.
54 Yang Y., and Cho E.H., 'The Study of Korean Brand Personality Scale Development and Validation', Korean Journal of Consumer and Advertising Psychology, 3 (2002), 25-53.